The Pionic Proof Of The Precise Down Up Quark Mass Differential

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For a number of years now the Particle Data Group ( has listed the measured mass difference between the charged and neutral pions as being equal to 4.5936 (with an experimental uncertainty = .0005) MeV. While this mass-difference is attributed to the added electric component of the charged state, one theoretically can equivalently derive the […]

Rishon Model Of Elementary Particles

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It has been proposed that the quarks and leptons consist of more fundamental particles called rishons. The T rishon may be defined as having mass and charge e/3. The V rishon is neutral and has little or no mass. The rishons have spin 1/2, carry color charge, and combine in triplets or rishon-antirishon pairs. Thus […]