What Happens When You Visit An Internet Website

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Time For Some Alphabet Soup Whenever you type an address into your web browser, or click on a link in a web page, you are making a request for a certain document. Handled by the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP), your request is sent over the Internet to the server that holds the document you […]


The Osi Reference Model And Tcp Ip Architecture

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The model represents a standard for connecting network systems. The model does not specify the ways in which the individual systems are connected but serves as a description of its layers, functions and services. The OSI Model consists of seven layers, each of which, as was already stated, receives the services of the layer below […]


History Of Web Design

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History is the replica of the present. Thus, we have to press our flashback imaginary buttons in order to have a sojourn in the times of yore. We have to know the beginning in order to relate it to the present and the future. In the case of web design, history is conclusive and clear […]


Cisco Ccna Ccnp Certification Exam Troubleshooting Direct Serial Connections

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A prime topic of your CCNA and CCNP CIT exams will be connecting Cisco routers directly via their Serial interfaces, and while the configuration is straightforward, there are some vital details and show commands you must know in order to pass the exams and configure this successfully in production and home lab networks. Let’s take […]


Cisco Certification Learning To Navigate Cisco S Online Documentation

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When studying for your Cisco CCNA, CCNP, or CCIE exam, you’ve got a powerful online weapon at your disposal. It’s Cisco Connection Documentation, found at www.cisco.com/univercd. This site contains product, code, and protocol documentation for all Cisco products. Many exam candidates really don’t start using this powerful tool until they’re studying for their more advanced […]


Cisco Ccnp Certification Bsci Exam Tutorial An Introduction To Bgp

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When you’re studying for the BSCI exam on the way to earning your CCNP certification, it’s safe to say that BGP is like nothing you’ve studied to this point. BGP is an external routing protocol used primarily by Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Unless you work for an ISP today or in the future, you may […]


Cisco Ccna Ccnp Certification Exam Review Protocol Basics

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To earn your Cisco CCNA certification and pass the BSCI CCNP exam, you have to know your protocol basics like the back of your hand! To help you review these important concepts, here’s a quick look at the basics of RIPv1, RIPv2, IGRP, and EIGRP. RIPv1: Broadcasts updates every 30 seconds to the address 255.255.255.255. […]


Cisco Ccnp Bsci Exam Tutorial Using Distribute Lists

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To be successful on the BSCI exam and in earning your CCNP, you’ve got to master route redistribution. This isn’t as easy as it sounds, because configuring route redistribution is only half the battle. Whether it’s on an exam or in a real-world production network, you’ve got to identify possible points of trouble before you […]


Cisco Ccnp Bcsi Exam Tutorial Broadcasts And The Ip Helper Address Command

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While routers accept and generate broadcasts, they do not forward them. This can be quite a problem when a broadcast needs to get to a device such as a DHCP or TFTP server that’s on one side of a router with other subnets on the other side. If a PC attempts to locate a DNS […]


Cisco Ccna Exam Tutorial Troubleshooting Directly Connected Serial Interfaces

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CCNA exam success depends largely on noticing the details, and this is especially true of configurations involving directly connected serial interfaces. And of course, it’s not enough to notice these details – you’ve got to know what to do about them! A Cisco router is a DTE by default, but directly connecting two DTEs with […]


How Does Ldap Work

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Lightweight Directory Access Protocol or LDAP is a TCP/IP-based Internet protocol used by email programs and a few other applications to search and fetch information from a directory stored on a server. A directory is a data repository storing identical chunks of information in a hierarchical and logical sequence. For instance, a telephone directory that […]


Icmp

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ICMP is a required element to implement Internet Protocol. ICMP is a control protocol which means that it does not carry any application data, but data about the status of the network itself. ICMP is used to report: – Errors in the core communications of the network applications – Availability of remote hosts – Network […]


What Is Isakmp

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ISAKMP stands for Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol. ISAKMP is a protocol used for establishing the security associations and the cryptographic keys. A security association is used to support secure communication and it refers to the establishment of the shared security information between two networks. Security Associations contain all the information required for […]


What Is Udp

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UDP, or User Datagram Protocol, is one of the several core protocols of the standard Internet protocol suite. By making use of UDP, it is possible for programs that are found on various computers connected by a network to send short messages back and forth. Known as datagrams, these quick and easy message make use […]


What Is Icmp

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ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) is an Internet protocol that is focused on the control of messages and the reporting of errors. In design, ICMP is configured to provide these functions as a mediator between a gateway and a host server. The presence of ICMP helps to protect the integrity of the messages that are […]